4.E.2 Understand the use of fossils and changes in the surface of the earth as evidence of the history of Earth and its changing life forms.
4.E.2.1 Compare fossils (including molds, casts, and preserved parts of plants and animals) to one another and to living organisms.
4.E.2.2 Infer ideas about Earth's early environments from fossils of plants and animals that lived long ago.
4.P.2 Understand the composition and properties of matter before and after they undergo a change or interaction.
4.P.2.1 Compare the physical properties of samples of matter: (strength, hardness, flexibility, ability to conduct heat, ability to conduct electricity, ability to be attracted by magnets, reactions to water and fire).
4.P.2.2 Explain how minerals are identified using tests for the physical properties of hardness, color, luster, cleavage, and streak.
4.P.2.3 Classify rocks as metamorphic, sedimentary, or igneous based on their composition, how they are formed and the processes that create them.